Archive | 2022/12/09

Kwartalnik Historii Żydów

Kwartalnik Historii Żydów

© Żydowski Instytut Historyczny im. Emanuela Ringelbluma

„Kwartalnik Historii Żydów” stanowi kontynuację „Biuletynu Żydowskiego Instytutu Historycznego”. Czasopismo noszące tytuł „Biuletyn Żydowskiego Instytutu Historycznego przy Centralnym Komitecie Żydów Polskich” ukazało się po raz pierwszy w listopadzie 1949 roku. Do 1950 r. „Biuletyn” był publikowany w języku polskim i jidysz, miał charakter biuletynu informacyjnego, przeważały w nim krótkie teksty o działalności Żydowskiego Instytutu Historycznego.

Kwartalnik Historii Żydów” ukazuje się w niewielkim nakładzie, ale cieszy się zainteresowaniem nie tylko w Polsce. Publikuje artykuły autorów polskich i zagranicznych, także w języku angielskim i niemieckim. Elektroniczna wersja „Kwartalnika” dostępna jest w CEEOL (Central and Eastern European Online Library). W 2011 r. „Kwartalnik” został wpisany na listę wyróżniających się czasopism naukowych (Master Journal List), sporządzaną rzez Thompson Institute for Scientific Information w Filadelfii (tzw. lista filadelfijska).

Od 1951 r. „Biuletyn” nie zmieniając tytułu zmienił format i charakter. Był to odtąd pełnowartościowy periodyk naukowy w języku polskim (półrocznik, od 1953 kwartalnik). Zakres tematyczny pisma obejmował dzieje Żydów od starożytności poprzez średniowiecze po lata najnowsze. W praktyce koncentrowano się na historii nowożytnej i najnowszej, a najszerzej były reprezentowane lata II wojny światowej.

Redaktorem naczelnym pisma był przez pierwsze 16 lat dyrektor Żydowskiego Instytutu Historycznego, Bernard Mark. Następnie pismem kierowali kolejno: Artur Eisenbach, Szymon Datner, Marian Fuks, Maurycy Horn (redaktor naczelny przez 17 lat, w latach 1973–1990), Jerzy Tomaszewski, Szymon Rudnicki, Daniel Grinberg, Alina Cała, wreszcie od 1999 r. redaktorem naczelnym „Biuletynu” jest prof. dr hab. Jan Doktór. Od 2001 r. czasopismo ukazuje się jako „Kwartalnik Historii Żydów”.

Przez znaczną część okresu Polski Ludowej tematyka żydowska była niechętnie dopuszczana na łamy czasopism, w niektórych latach była objęta niemal całkowitym zapisem cenzury. „Biuletyn ŻIH” był jedynym czasopismem, w którym przez wszystkie te lata mogły być publikowane artykuły i dokumenty na tematy żydowskie, w tym, co istotne, także materiały dotyczące zagłady Żydów podczas II wojny światowej.

Bibliografia zawartości „Biuletynu ŻIH” za lata 1949-2000 została opublikowana w numerze 3 (199) we wrześniu 2001 roku. Jej kontynuację stanowi bibliografia zawartości „Kwartalnika” za lata 2001–2010, która znajduje się w numerze 3 (239) z września 2011 roku.

„Kwartalnik Historii Żydów” publikuje artykuły dotyczące historii Żydów w Polsce i innych krajach, kultury i literatury żydowskiej. Przyjmujemy do publikacji wyłącznie teksty oryginalne, nie opublikowane wcześniej w innych miejscach. W załączniku znajdą Państwo wytyczne odnośnie nadsyłanych artykułów. Artykuły prosimy przesyłać na adres:

Rada redakcyjna:

Wolfgang Benz (University of Technology – Berlin)

Jonathan Brent (YIVO)

Dan Diner (Hebrew University – Jerusalem / Leibniz Institute – Leipzig)

Jan Doktór (ŻIH)

David Gershon Hundert (McGill University – Montreal)

Monika Krawczyk (ŻIH)

Gertrud Pickhan (Free University – Berlin)

Antony Polonsky (Brandeis University – Waltham, Mass.)

Daniel Reiser (Herzog College – Jerozolima)

Szymon Rudnicki (Uniwersytet Warszawski)

Kolegium redakcyjne:

Eleonora Bergman, Michał Czajka (sekretarz redakcji), Helena Datner, Jan Doktór (redaktor naczelny), Małgorzata Domagalska, Monika Krawczyk, Artur Markowski, Anna Michałowska-Mycielska, Alina Molisak, Joanna Nalewajko-Kulikov, Szymon Rudnicki

Zobacz archiwalne numery Kwartalnika Historii Żydów w Centralnej Bibliotece Judaistycznej

Zobacz wydanie rocznicowe Kwartalnika Historii Żydów. Wybór artykułów z lat 1950–2017

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To Hedy Lamarr, the hidden Jew, beauty was only skin deep

To Hedy Lamarr, the hidden Jew, beauty was only skin deep


ZIEGFELD GIRL, Hedy Lamarr, 1941

In 1933, the Viennese actress Hedy Keisler sparked an international furor by swimming nude in a provocative melodrama called “Ecstasy.” Alas, it was the tragic fate of Hedy Lamarr, as she was renamed when she arrived in Hollywood, to be perpetually judged by her face and figure rather than her intellect.

A splendid study of an extraordinarily complicated and conflicted person, Alexandra Dean’s film, “Bombshell: The Hedy Lamarr Story,” recounts the actress and inventor’s litany of innovations and achievements alongside her frustrations and failures. The documentary, which opened last week at the Kendall Square Cinema in Cambridge, is most fascinating when it shifts from Lamarr’s ambivalence toward Hollywood glamour to her wartime invention of a secure communication system.

The beloved daughter of a Jewish banker, Lamarr had a comfortable childhood before gravitating to the theater and movies. Fleeing a youthful marriage to a Jewish fascist who made arms for the Nazis, as well as the gathering storm in Europe, she purchased passage on an ocean liner in 1937. Aboard ship, she parlayed her bravado and striking good looks into an introduction to MGM executives and, eventually, studio mogul Louis B. Mayer in Los Angeles.

“My grandfather fled the Nazis in a very similar fashion, on a boat where he met someone from Samuel Goldwyn’s shop and ended up in Hollywood and it saved his life,” Dean said. “He became a very powerful individual, and he did not like having been victimized by the Nazis and he kind of whitewashed that entire episode in his life. He didn’t think of himself as a victim and he didn’t want to think of his family or his tribe as victims, so being Jewish was a complicated thing for him.”

Dean saw in Lamarr a similar refusal to be defined by her background or circumstances.

“She also had the same kind of complicated relationship with being a woman,” Dean said. “She wanted to be Louis B. Mayer, she wanted to be Cecil B. DeMille. She didn’t want to identify as a woman and she didn’t want to identify as a Jew. 

“And what does that do to you? I think if you don’t understand her relationship with being Jewish you don’t understand why she was such a broken person.”

Lamarr’s Jewishness was directly related to her development of a system for ships to communicate that the Nazis couldn’t break, Dean said. Though the technology wasn’t used in World War II, an updated version helped Navy ships during the Cuban missile crisis in 1962. Lamarr’s invention later led to the development of GPS, Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi.

In Hollywood, the actress wasn’t allowed to be open about her identity because Mayer believed that audiences wouldn’t fantasize about a Jew. At the same time, the Nazis were blowing up ships in the Atlantic with European Jewish children.

Her mother converted to Catholicism in 1938 in Vienna, and Dean theorized that her motivation was to make it easier to escape the Nazis. Then Dean discovered a letter that Hedy had written saying, “Please do this for me, because I don’t want to be identified as a Jew in Hollywood.”

The psychological effect of Lamarr’s subterfuge mingled with her sorrow over the destruction of European Jewry is difficult to calculate, but it subsequently manifested itself in the insistence to her children that she wasn’t Jewish. In fact, Dean was compelled to confront Lamarr’s offspring with their grandfather’s death certificate — evidence of his burial in a Jewish cemetery — and their grandmother’s conversion papers.

Dean’s greatest challenge in “Bombshell” is conveying Lamarr’s many contradictions: strength and shallowness, altruism and cruelty, desire and despair. The film manages to be surprising and unexpected, yet utterly relevant in its portrayal of a woman stymied in her efforts to win respect on her terms.

“People are very quick to dislike Hedy Lamarr,” Dean said. “It appalled me, and made me extremely sad that people wouldn’t give her any leeway to express herself.” 

Actress Hedy Lamarr patents the basis for WiFi

Ruth Barton

Hedy Lamarr in Her Highness and the Bellboy, 1945. 

On this date in 1942, Hollywood actress Hedy Lamarr (called “the most beautiful woman in Hollywood”) received a patent with composer George Antheil for a “frequency hopping, spread-spectrum communication system” designed to make radio-guided torpedoes harder to detect or jam. Lamarr and Antheil made an interesting pair of collaborators. She was an Austrian-born beauty and American film star who practiced electrical engineering when off the movie lot; he was an avant-garde composer, notably of Ballet Mécanique, a score that included synchronized player pianos. The two devised a method whereby a controlling radio and its receiver would jump from one frequency to another, like simultaneous player pianos, so that the radio waves could not be blocked.

The two submitted their patent to the US Navy, which officially opined that Lamarr could do more for the war effort by selling kisses to support war bonds. On one occasion, she raised $7 million. She and Antheil donated their patent to the US Navy and never realized any money from their invention, which would eventually become the basis for wireless phones, Global Positioning Systems, and WiFi, among other cutting-edge technologies.

Her son Anthony Loder recalls, “She was such a creative person, I mean, nonstop solution-finding. If you talked about a problem, she had a solution.”

Lamarr was born Hedwig Eva Maria Kiesler in Vienna on November 9, 1914. A student of German theatre director Max Reinhardt, she began her film career in Germany and Czechoslovakia in 1930. A brief nude appearance by the actress in the film Ecstasy brought her notoriety and fame before she fled Germany in 1937 as the Nazis rose to power. She travelled to America on the same boat that carried Hollywood studio head Louis B. Mayer; by the end of the voyage, Lamarr had a movie contract with MGM paying $600 a week, contingent on her learning English. Her film career included AlgiersWhite Cargo, and the lead in Samson and Delilah.

In 1997, the Electronic Frontier Foundation gave her its prestigious Pioneer Award, three years before her death in Orlando, Florida on January 19, 2000 at age 86.

More about HedyLamaee:


Sources: August 11: Hedy Lamarr, Inventor, Jewish Currents; “Hedy Lamarr: Movie star, inventor of WiFi, CBS Sunday Morning.

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IDF Counts 6,900 Lone Soldiers; Half Come From 73 Different Countries

IDF Counts 6,900 Lone Soldiers; Half Come From 73 Different Countries

Algemeiner Staff

IDF soldiers finish their beret march following eight months of training. Photo: Alexi Rosenfeld / IDF Spokesperson Unit

The Israel Defense Forces currently include some 6,900 lone soldiers, nearly half of whom immigrated from 73 different countries.

The lone soldier label applies to recruits who serve with no parental support in Israel. This includes Israeli natives who are orphans or have no ties to their parents, constituting some 48 percent of all lone soldiers. The rest include recruits who made aliyah while their parents live abroad.

A breakdown of countries published by the military last week showed some contributed hundreds of lone soldiers to the IDF, with 610 lone soldiers coming from the United States, as well as 488 from Russia, 332 from Ukraine, and 264 from France.

Multiple countries contributed dozens of recruits, with 98 soldiers immigrating from Argentina, while 80 soldiers came from each Britain and South Africa. Brazil contributed 63 recruits, ahead of countries including Canada (51), Kazakhstan (38), Colombia (23), Ethiopia (19), and India (13).

Some other countries, in the meantime, could claim less than 10 recruits. For instance, seven recruits came from Switzerland, five from Japan, and one each from Serbia, Slovakia, and Botswana.

This year saw the enlistment of 87 new lone soldiers, the military said.

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